Who wins a trade war?

Trade wars are not won by anyone. Of course, the exporting country loses from a trade war, but so too does the importing one. The reason why there are no winners in a trade war is because it normally leads to the substitution of more expensive goods for cheaper ones. In effect, a trade war denies consumers the efficiency gains that have been realised through the expansion of global supply chains and one only has to go back as recently as 2002, the last time steel tariffs were enacted, to see the potential for damage. Following a spate of mill closures and surging imports, President Bush implemented tariffs on certain steel products. The net effect on employment in the steel industry was minimal, but the businesses that used steel products as inputs shed approximately 200,000 jobs (compared to the 180,000 employed in US steel production at the time).[1]. As a result of these tariffs, US manufacturing firms, in particular smaller companies, were subjected to higher input prices which eroded profitability. Unable to increase prices, once profitable companies were forced to cut production and with it their labour forces, so while the intention of tariffs and trade barriers is to repatriate jobs seen to have been lost overseas, the outcome is often higher prices and jobs losses at home.

Brendan Mulhern – Global Strategist. Newton, a BNY Mellon company

[1]Trade Partnership Worldwide study. The Unintended Consequences of U.S. Steel Import Tariffs: A Quantification of the Impact During 2002 07 February 2003.

Trade wars are not won by anyone. Of course, the exporting country loses from a trade war, but so too does the importing one. The reason why there are no winners in a trade war is because it normally leads to the substitution of more expensive goods for cheaper ones. In effect, a trade war denies consumers the efficiency gains … read more

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Is Spain becoming semi-core?

From a pure economic perspective, we argue Spain has moved from the periphery to a semi-core member of the eurozone. The IMF estimates Spain’s potential growth to have improved from 0% in 2014 to 1.5% this year. In this sense, the structural reforms put in place starting in 2009 have contributed to a fair degree of competitiveness gains and higher potential growth.

More importantly, the market is likely to trade Spain favourably in the coming year. A potential catalyst is likely the S&P’s review of Spain, currently BBB+ with positive outlook, on 23 March 2018.

The growth outlook remains robust, and the Catalonia-Madrid tensions have dwindled; we believe the macro risks have receded sufficiently for the agency to upgrade Spain to A-. With two rating agencies in A-range (Fitch upgraded Spain to A- on 19 January), we believe the market is likely to price Spain as an A credit.

Rebecca Braeu – head of Sovereign Credit and strategy, BNY Mellon Asset Management North America 

From a pure economic perspective, we argue Spain has moved from the periphery to a semi-core member of the eurozone. The IMF estimates Spain’s potential growth to have improved from 0% in 2014 to 1.5% this year. In this sense, the structural reforms put in place starting in 2009 have contributed to a fair degree of competitiveness gains and higher … read more

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CPI, RPI and the true cost of clothing

Have UK clothes prices gone up or down over the last 10 years? Most people would assume that the answer to this would be simple, just look at inflation. But not all inflation calculations are the same, they can use different formulas to calculate price changes and, as a result come to different conclusions.

Most people know that the UK’s Retail Price Index (RPI) differs from the Consumer Price Index (CPI), as RPI includes housing costs in the form of council tax and mortgage interest payments, but the differences between the two indices are deeper than this. For example when you compare clothing and footwear prices over the last twenty years, both CPI and RPI show prices declining during the first ten years, but for the second ten years a clear divergence appears.

The reason for this disparity comes down to calculation method. RPI uses the ‘Carli’ formula for around 30% of the prices it measures (including clothing and footwear), a measure that has previously been criticised for introducing an upward bias to inflation data. But even the initial decline is questionable! The Bank of England (BoE) have stated that annual CPI inflation may have been underestimated by up to 0.3% a year between 1997 and 2009 as a result of seasonal sales for clothing and footwear which saw discounts being captured by the data, but not the recovery back to normal prices as the sales ended. This led to a change in methodology being introduced at the start of 2010.

With inflation at the top of the BoE’s tolerance threshold, the Monetary Policy Committee will need to make a judgement on how quickly they need to raise interest rates. Understanding these intricacies of inflation measurement is a critical part of their role.

David Hooker – portfolio manager. Insight Investment, a BNY Mellon company

Have UK clothes prices gone up or down over the last 10 years? Most people would assume that the answer to this would be simple, just look at inflation. But not all inflation calculations are the same, they can use different formulas to calculate price changes and, as a result come to different conclusions. Most people know that the UK’s … read more

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Flying high: the rise of the drones

Until recently, drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were most commonly recognised for their military application and, in small scale, as children’s toys. Now, via new technologies, they have uses in areas such as farming, industrial inspection, mapping and search and rescue. Commercial drones are fast becoming big business.

Many drones now carry infrared sensors, which allow them to “see” heat at great distances. For search and rescue and first responders, the technology could make rescue efforts faster and more efficient. UAVs can also cross sector verticals and have applications throughout nearly every industry, aided in part by new sensors like infrared. Energy companies can use them to inspect pipelines and solar farms to prevent leaks and boost efficiencies and transportation and infrastructure companies can test ageing infrastructure to improve safety. Agricultural and mining applications can boost yields and lower costs with improved mapping techniques.

The increasing sophistication and application of drones presents exciting potential to both businesses and tech-savvy investors. Autonomous drones, capable of operating independently, are also in development and could be a reality in the next three to five years. UAVs offer the potential to boost productivity via higher efficiency and resource utilisation as well as lower costs. UAVs may reduce environmental accidents by identifying looming risks. The sky really may be the only limit.

Robert Zeuthen – senior equity analyst, BNY Mellon Asset Management North America.

Until recently, drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were most commonly recognised for their military application and, in small scale, as children’s toys. Now, via new technologies, they have uses in areas such as farming, industrial inspection, mapping and search and rescue. Commercial drones are fast becoming big business. Many drones now carry infrared sensors, which allow them to “see” … read more

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Tech stocks: Have we returned to ’99?

Over the 12 months to 31 December the FANG[1] stocks rose on average some 50% in US dollar terms, while the broader S&P 500 rose just 23%. Asia too has its own tech leaders, colloquially known as the BAT stocks (Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent) and they, like FANGs, experienced spectacular returns in 2017 (up on average c80% in US dollars over the same time frame).

Without these ‘Dracula’ stocks (the FANGs and BATs combined), markets like the S&P 500 would certainly have been less exuberant over the past year.

The last tech bubble came at the close of the millennium. In our view, investors in the current crop of technology stocks have partied like it’s 1999 all over again. While this is fine in theory we prefer to take a less short-term view. To paraphrase the immortal words of Prince Rogers Nelson: “Life is a party but parties weren’t meant to last”. [2]

Nick Clay – portfolio manager. Newton, a BNY Mellon company

[1] The term FANG stocks refers to Facebook, Amazon, Netflix and Google (subsequently renamed as alphabet)

[2] From the song 1999 by Prince, released 24 September 1982, re-released 3 November 1998

Over the 12 months to 31 December the FANG[1] stocks rose on average some 50% in US dollar terms, while the broader S&P 500 rose just 23%. Asia too has its own tech leaders, colloquially known as the BAT stocks (Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent) and they, like FANGs, experienced spectacular returns in 2017 (up on average c80% in US dollars … read more

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